Oligozoospermia, refers to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility. Often semen with a decreased sperm concentration may also show significant abnormalities in sperm morphology and motility (technically "oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.
Diagnosis: The diagnosis of oligospermia is based on one low count in a semen analysis performed on two occasions. For many decades sperm concentrations of less than 20 million sperm/ml were considered low or oligospermic, recently, however, the WHO reassessed sperm criteria and established a lower reference point, less than 15 million sperm/ml, consistent with the 5th percentile for fertile men.Sperm concentrations fluctuate and oligospermia may be temporary or permanent.
Causes of Oligozoospermia:
Pre-testicular factors : refer to conditions that impede adequate support of the testes and include situations of poor hormonal support and poor general health including:
- Hypogonadism due to various causes
- Drugs, alcohol, smoking
- Strenuous riding (bicycle riding, horseback riding)
- Medications, including androgen
Testicular factors: Testicular factors refer to conditions where the testes produces semen of poor quality despite adequate hormonal support and include:
- Genetic defects on the Y chromosome
- Abnormal set of chromosomes
- Neoplasm, e.g. seminoma
- Idiopathic failure
Post-Testicular Causes :
- Vas deferens
- Retrograde ejaculation
- Ejaculatory duct obstruction
In about 30 % of infertile men no causative factor is found for their decrease in sperm concentration or quality by common clinical, instrumental, or laboratory means, and the condition is termed "idiopathic" (unexplained). A number of factors may be involved in the genesis of this condition, including age, infectious agents ( such as Chlamydia trachomatis), Y chromosome microdeletions, mitochondrial changes, environmental pollutants, and "subtle" hormonal changes.
TREATMENT OF OLIGOSPERMIA:
TREATMENT IS VERY MUCH SIMILAR TO AZOOSPERMIA. The only difference is that lesser number of medications are required as compared to azoospermia. The results are very quick to come. At the same time panchkarma treatment is often not required.